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Appendix II, about 21,000 species, are species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but are unable to do so if the trade in specimens of these species is not subject to strict regulations to avoid use incompatible with the survival of the species. In addition, Schedule II may include species similar to those already in the appendices. International trade in Schedule II specimens may be permitted through the issuance of an export permit or re-export certificate. In practice, hundreds of thousands of Schedule II animals are exchanged each year. [17] No import authorization is required for these species under CITES, although some contracting parties require import licences as part of their stricter national measures. The exporting party requires a non-harmful finding s. [16] The main reason CITES is better able to manage the trade in zoonotic wildlife than other existing mechanisms is its 45-year maturity in architecture, processes, infrastructure, expertise and experience in regulating and enforcing international wildlife trade standards. The affinity of the global SYSTEM for the implementation of CITES would give nations around the world a huge lead in implementing new protocols to combat zoonotic transmission. To take CITES out of the solution is to abandon the only global system of regulation and enforcement of the wildlife trade, which would be a loss that could not be easily or quickly replaced. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, often referred to as CITES (SIGH-teez), is an agreement between governments that regulates international trade in wildlife and wildlife products, live animals and plants for food, leather goods and jewellery. It came into force in 1975 to ensure that international trade does not jeopardize the survival of plants and wildlife. Each party maintains a record of the exchanges of specimens of species that are annexed and makes periodic reports on the application of this Convention and transmits them to the secretariat.

These reports will include an annual report containing a summary of the species listed in Schedules I, II and III on species trade, as well as a biannual report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken to enforce the provisions of this Convention.

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